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  Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology

Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A (ISSN 2161-6256) and Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology B (ISSN 2161-6264) (Earlier title: Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, ISSN 1939-1250) are published monthly in hard copy by David Publishing Company located at 9460 Telstar Ave Suite 5, EL Monte, CA 91731, USA.

ISSN:A ISSN 2161-6256; B ISSN 2161-6264
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Volume 2, Number 8A, August 2012
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pp. 937-943

Abstract: In this paper some selected items of changes in the human resources in Polish agriculture at the beginning of 21st century were presented, especially the questions of employment and education of the rural areas population, including farmers. The employment, as the first of the issues, was presented against the changes in the EU and the stable but non-revolutionary character of changes in Polish agriculture was underlined. To illustrate the connections between the process of changes in agriculture and the level of education some statistic data were shown. The disproportion in education level between the urban and the rural population was exposed with the emphasis on poor education of the farmers. The author also discussed the further prospects of human resources changes in the rural area to 2035. At the same time the importance of education in the process of raising the standard of life and work of people in the rural areas was stressed. 


Key words: Human resources, quality of human resources, education, employment in agriculture.

pp. 944-951

Abstract: The issue in this matter is that rules for use of electricity in rural areas are limited to the provision of inputs. Adopting guidelines to consider managed sub regions can generate poor results. The focus of this study was to present parameters for indicators of electric energy and agricultural production to allow the formation of city groups in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, with similar electric energy consumption and rural agricultural production. The methodology was the development of indicators that characterize the electric energy consumption/agricultural production and the preparation of groups using indicators with ward of statistical method of groups. The main conclusions were the formation of six homogeneous groups with similar characteristics regarding agricultural production/consumption of electricity. The application of these groups in cities with similar characteristics would produce more satisfactory results than the division of administrative Rural Development Offices (RDO).


Key words: Clusters, indicators, productive energy.

pp. 952-961

Abstract: The investment opportunities created by economic policies and increasing urbanization have enhanced demand for urban and peri-urban land. Fertile agricultural land is being converted to other uses. Around 1/3 more of the existing area under forests is needed to meet the targets of national forest policy. In the last two decades, 9% pastures have disappeared. The hills being removed cause threat to environment. The farmers seem to overuse land and other inputs. In the peri-urban areas agricultural fertile lands are many times forcefully acquired for non-agricultural uses, which result in violent protests and judicial interventions. A few cases of vast land use change, motive forces for such change, effect of change in land use on livelihood and on quality and costs of fresh vegetable supply are discussed in this paper. The partially used and unused data collected for earlier studies and some data collected for this paper have been used. The increase in land prices due to enhanced income of some sections, future need of prime land and returns from other than agricultural uses seem to be the driving force for change in land use, affecting the livelihood of people dependent upon farming who are migrating to nearby areas. Each shift of peri-urban agriculture will result in loss of quality, increase wastage by 6% and enhance costs of leafy vegetables by more than 5.5%. For an ideal urban land use, a balanced multi land use policy emphasizing peri-urban agriculture and forestry is suggested.


Key words: Land use, peri-urban agriculture, livelihood, supply costs, fresh vegetables.

pp. 962-970

Characterization of Pro-embryogenic Calli and Somatic Embryogenesis of Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss.

Luciano Coutinho Silva, Renato Paiva, Diogo Pedrosa Corrêa Da Silva, Sandro Barbosa, Raírys Cravo Herrera, Lisete Chamma Davide and Patrícia Duarte De Oliveira Paiva


Abstract: Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. is a species from the Brazilian Cerrado that produces edible fruits and, in common with other species from the Byrsonima genus, has pharmacological potential. Previous attempts to propagate the species through conventional methods showed difficulties. Thus, the purpose of this work was to characterize pro-embryogenic masses of Byrsonima intermedia callus, aiming for their in vitro propagation through somatic embryogenesis. Leaf segments from in vitro germinated seedlings were employed as explants for callus production. The calli were then subcultured and exposed to dyes to fulfill their embryogenic potential. Digitalizations of the cytological preparations were made in order to measure the area that was stained by both Aceto-Carmine and Evans-Blue, using image tool software. Somatic embryos were induced after treatments with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The percentages of double-colored areas (by Aceto-Carmine and Evans-Blue) were calculated and the data were analyzed by using the Skott-Knott test (P 0.05) and, the embryogenic callus, as well as the formation of somatic embryos were analyzed by using the Krsuskal-Wallis rank test (P 0.05). The results show that double coloration is effective at identifying cells showing embryogenic potential. Early callus subculture phases show a larger percentage of embryogenic area (83%). Somatic embryos were induced by using high auxin level. 


Key words: Double staining, aceto-carmine, evans-blue, somatic embryogenesis, native plant, auxin.

pp. 971-975

Abstract: Dry season water application and conservation were studied for two years in Ado Ekiti to evaluate their effects on the performance of plantain Musa spp.. The treatments were: morning watering (MW), evening watering (EW), morning and evening watering (MEW), morning watering + mulch (MW + ML), evening watering + mulch (EW + ML), morning and evening watering + mulch (MEW + ML), mulch (ML) and Control. Height and girth increase, number of green leaves, yield and yield parameters were the highest in the MEW + ML which were identical to those of Evening watering + mulch and morning + evening watering. The evening or morning watering with mulch was identical but showed better performance than those without mulch. The mulched plants and the control showed the least performance. It is therefore recommended that proper water conservation in plantain plantation will improve banana survival during dry season and subsequently increase yield in the study area.


Key words: Banana, dry season, water conservation, mulching, water application.

pp. 976-982

Abstract: Tuber slices of newly introduced potato cultivars (cvs) in Libya, namely Spunta, Pamela, Daisy, Daifla, Atlas and Apollina were tested for their susceptibility to soft rot bacterium (Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora). Atlas cv was proved to be the most susceptible cv, meanwhile, Daisy cv was the most resistant one. The activities of pectolytic and oxidative enzymes in diseased tubers were profoundly higher than these in healthy ones. The highest enzymatic activities of pectin methyl esterase (PME) and polygalacturonase (PG) were observed in diseased tubers of Daifla cv. However, diseased tubers of Spunta gave the highest activities of polymethyl galacturonase (PMG). On the other hand, the highest significant activities of the enzyme PME in healthy tubers was detected in Pamela cv compared to other cvs. Moreover, there were insignificant differences in PG and PMG enzymes activities between healthy tubers of the different cvs. The cv Daisy gave the highest activity of the enzyme peroxidase (PO) in diseased tubers, whereas the highest activity of enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was detected in infected tubers of Atlas cv. Concerning healthy tubers, the highest activities of enzymes PO and PPO were noticed in Atlas and Pamella cvs respectively as compared to other cvs. Electrolyte leakage from plant cells was estimated by measuring electrical conductivity as indicator for permeability changes in potato tissues. Values of electrolyte leakage in infected tubers of all tested cvs showed significant increase compared with those of healthy ones, especially, with the most susceptible one.


Key words: Libya, Erwinia carotovora, potato, soft-rot.

pp. 983-987

Abstract: The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated die-back of various woody hosts. In this study, Phaeoacremonium specie was isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Platanus occidentalies L. (Platanus). Morphological and cultural characteristics were used to identify the species, which known, and being described as Phaeoacremonium aleophillum. This is the first report on identifying Phaeoacremonium aleophillum from Platanus in Iraq, previously reports accommodate Cephalosporium acremonium from Platanus trees. This specie is able to produce toxic metabolites. Applications of P. aleophillum crude and cell-free filtrates induced severe chlorosis and necrosis on Platanus leaves after 24 hours of treatment with P. aleophillum culture filtrate. A novel phytotoxin was isolated from P. aleophillum and culture filtrate was identified as galactouronic acid.


Key words: Phaeoacremonium aleophillum, Platanus, phytotoxin, galactouronic acid.

pp. 988-996

Abstract: Peptides are known to on act to discourage the growth of insects. In this perspective, authors studied the biological and physiological effects of LeucokininII on the growth of Red Palm Weevil through adult insect feeding of the sugar cane treated with different concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.4%) and biological effects on the number of eggs, the percentage of hatching, the length of the generation and the proportion of deformation. Results showed that there is a significant reduction in the number of eggs laid by the insects as the average number of eggs/female 75.7, 63.5, 59.4, 55.1 egg for each of the concentrations, respectively, compared with the average 140.2 egg in the control group, and reduction of percentages of hatching in all treatment as 71.4%, 64.6%, 70% and 71.5% respectively, compared with 79.3% of the control group. The percentage of deformations in egg densities included 44.4%, 15.4%, 22.6%, 27.8% compared to the control group. The results showed that there are a number of large deformations in the resulting larvae for different treatments. The conclusion is drawn that this study using LeucokininII confirmed inhibition growth and caused an imbalance in the development stages of different insects due to its effect on the hormones that control molting of insects. This conclusion is furthermore apparent in the larval stage, as it appeared that LeucokininII prevents the insect from completing its life cycle. Test results using LeucokininII are encouraging, and its future potential use in reducing Red Palm Weevil deserves broader studies. If the spread of currently known that this LeucokininII is without prejudice to the work of the hormonal system.


Key words: R. ferrugineus, neuropeptide, hatching, deformation, treatment, hormones, LeucokininII.

pp. 997-1002

Classical Swine Fever in Brazil: An Update

Tânia Rosária Pereira Freitas, Adriana Cavalcante de Souza, Eduardo Gonçalves Esteves and Tânia Maria de Paula Lyra


Abstract: Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious viral disease of Suidae animals, caused by a Pestivirus from Flaviviridae family, considered one major cause of economic losses to the swine producers. The CSF eradication and control program (CSFECP) established from 1992 evolved to 2001, divide the country in CSF Free Zone, without CSF vaccination and CSF infected area. The purpose of this work was to analyze the CSFECP efficacy in all Brazilian territory from 2000 to 2011 including CSF outbreaks in infected area of North and Northeast regions. CSF epidemiological data were obtained mainly from Federal Agriculture Defense Secretary and States Official Inspection Agencies. The CSF outbreaks occurred in CSF infected area were plotted and the tendency line analyzed by quadratic trend model (Minitab). The results of Brazilian statutory for CSF point to a gradual CSF-eradication in all country since the number of Federal States including at CSF Free Zone, is increasing and reached 15 of 27 Brazilian States, in period from 2001 to 2009. In seven States of infected area, 49 CSF outbreaks occurred. The stamping out was the main sanitary measure but in two Federal States Amapá and Rio Grande do Norte the emergency vaccination was also applied. In conclusion, the eradication of CSF of all Brazilian territory is in progress but depend on the continuity of official swine diseases surveillance jointed with a rigorous control of animal movement, serological and viral activities investigations until no more outbreaks could be cited in all country.


Key words: Classical swine fever, CSF-outbreaks, Brazil.

pp. 1003-1010

The Effectiveness of Coccinellids as Natural Enemies of Aphids in Maize, Beans and Cowpeas Intercrop

Robert W. Nyukuri, Stella C. Kirui, Fred M. E. Wanjala, Jared O. Odhiambo and Evelyne Cheramgoi


Abstract: A field study was conducted in Busia district of Kenya to elucidate the dynamics of ladybirds in mixed stands of maize, beans and cowpeas to determine their efficacy as sole control measures for Aphids. Maize, beans and cowpeas were intercropped using conventional husbandry practices and the general Coccinellid quantified as follows: Colonies of four Coccinellids, starved for 12 hours to enhance feeding on Aphids were assessed. The effects of weather on the abundance of Coccinellids were also investigated and involved collection of meteorological data from the Busia District Agricultural Office (BDAO) and from Busia Farmers Training Centre (BFTC) and relating them to the abundance and predation values. The predator population was most abundant in the mixed stands of maize and beans (2.33 predators/30 Aphids) as compared to their occurrence in pure stands of cowpeas (0.85 predators/30 Aphids). The genus Cheilomenes spp. was the most ubiquitous predator with a mean of 4.00 individuals/30 Aphids while Hippodamia variegata was the least abundant predator species with a mean of 0.92 individuals/30 Aphids in all the agro-ecosystems. The larvae of Hippodamia variegata were the most bio-efficient, consuming 32.44 Aphids while their adults were the least bio-efficient, consuming 4.22 individuals for a period of 12 hours. The Coccinellids consumed more Aphids at higher aphid densities (24.05 Aphids) than at lower aphid densities (9.44 Aphids) over the same period of time. Rainfall and relative humidity had significant (F = 3.675; P < 0.05) effects on the abundance of Coccinellids. Temperature had significant (F = 3.58; P < 0.05) effect on the abundance of Coccinellids though at a lower level. Rainfall (r = -0.162) and relative humidity (r = - 0.084) were both inversely correlated with the abundance of Coccinellids. On the other hand, temperature was positively correlated (r = 0.159) with the prevalence of Coccinellids indicating that warmer and drier conditions favoured their multiplication.


Key words: Efficacy, Coccinellids, Aphids, natural enemies, ecological factors, crops.

pp. 1011-1017

Abstract: The anatomical and histological study were conducted on 72 specimens of buffaloes foot, regardless of the age and species, The foot structures were described which included first phalanx, second phalanx, third phalanx, digital cushion, joint, ligaments and tendons, as well as the foots sole, blood and nerve supply. The main source of blood supply is the median artery, the radial artery, dorsal metacarpal artery. On the other hand, the metacarpophalangeal joint, proximal interphalangeal joint and joints capsules were shown by radiographic pictures. The median nerve is the main source of the nerve supply of foot, as well as ulnar and radial nerve. However, the digital tendons on the dorsal surface and palmer surface were represented by common, proper flexor digital tendons and deep superficial digital extensor tendons respectively, the histological picture of coronary region revealed that it consistd of horn tubules and intertubular horn. While the lamellae region showed that it consisted of primary epidermal lamellae, containing the epidermis and dermis regions, also, noticed that the epidermal lamellae was interfered with faced dermis lamellar. The histological structure of the hoof revealed that it consisted of keratinocytes which connected with each other by desmosal adhesion. Digital cushion contained of elastic and collagen fibers with presence of adipose cells masses greater than that at foot sole. 


Key words: Digital cushion, ligament, phalanx, epidermis, hoof.

pp. 1018-1023

Abstract: Knowledge on stocking density enables the farmer decide on the density limits that will enhance fish yield when intuition and experience are used as guide. Twelve weeks experiment conducted in concrete tanks assessed the growth performance and survival rate at different stocking densities of test specimens. Data analysis revealed that the highest stocking density produced the highest (157.85 ± 36.54a) mean weight gain for C. gariepinus. Mean weight gain for O. niloticus in the same tank as just mentioned, took the reverse order. Specific growth data recorded for C. gariepinus revealed an intermediate value at the highest (4.25 ± 1.3ab) and lowest (4.23 ± 1.2ab) stocking densities, while the highest value was recorded at the intermediate stocking density (4.41 ± 1.34a). Data on performance index revealed significant differences between the lowest (339.24 ± 86.95b) and intermediate (397.07 ± 103.81a) and also between the lowest (339.24 ± 86.95b) and the highest (397.81 ± 113.14a) stocking densities. The lowest stocking density recorded the highest food conversion efficiency, while the least was recorded at the highest stocking density. Clarias gariepinus recorded 98.3% survival at the highest stocking density, whereas O. niloticus in the same tank recorded 70.83%. The authors therefore conclude that since the highest stocking density gave the best yield in most of the output parameters, it should be recommended to farmers.


Key words: Clarias gariepinus, Oreochromis niloticus, polyculture, stocking ratio.

pp. 1024-1028

Abstract: Fermented chile pepper mash is a major food product in New Mexico. There are few reports on the fermentation process or on methods to monitor it. In the current study we examined a pour plate procedure with an overlay using plate count agar and 3 M™ Petrifilm™ Aerobic Count (AC) plates for determination of total aerobic bacterial counts during the fermentation of chile mash. Fifty chile mash samples were obtained directly from commercial fermentation vats and examined within 2 h of collection. Serial dilutions of the chile mash were prepared in Butterfield’s Phosphate Buffer. 1 mL portions of the diluted samples were aliquoted in duplicate onto the AC plates and into empty Petri dishes. Plate count agar was poured and once the plates had solidified, they were overlaid with about 10 mL of PCA to minimize spreaders. Plates were incubated at 30 °C for 48 h and enumerated. Paired difference tests were conducted on log transformed data to compare the results of the two plating procedures. For commercial chile mash samples, we did not show any significant differences between the AC plate counts and the pour plate counts (α = 0.05). 3 M™ Petrifilm™ AC plates are a good alternative to pour plates for the determination of the total aerobic counts in fermented chile mashes. 


Key words: Fermentation, chile pepper mash, aerobic plate count, petrifilm™, plate count agar.

Volume 2, Number 8B, August 2012
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pp. 865-874

Abstract: Crop coefficients (Kc) of sugar beet were determined for accurate calculation of water requirements (CWR) and better irrigation water management. Three irrigation treatments were used during two seasons to measure actual crop water use (ETc) under no soil stress treatment using gravimetric sampling. In the second season (SS), the method was modified to target 8 temporal points during crop growth for smooth calculation of ETc under sufficient moisture supply to avoid the distortion that was created by the continuous gravimetric sampling after, before and during each irrigation cycle on the experimental plots. Water was stopped when each targeted sampling point was reached using large plots where intensive sampling continues until the crop reaches severe water stress or permanent wilting point (PWP). The actual crop water use was extracted from the soil moisture depletion curve which allowed the identification of two clear segments. The first segment indicated crop water use during no water stress while the change of the slope indicated the beginning of the water stress. The reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) was determined on daily basis using appropriate weather data that coincides with the ETc measurement and consequently the crop Kc were calculated. The results showed that the method used during the SS is easy and provides a better understanding of actual crop water use and better estimation of crop Kc. The calculated 10-day Kc values for sugar beet under heavy cracking clay soil conditions were: 0.46, 0.49, 0.53 and 0.60; for the initial stage: 0.69, 0.78, 0.88 and 0.97; for the development stage: 1.05, 1.11, 1.13, 1.11 and 1.04; for mid-season stage and for late season stage: 0.92, 0.74 and 0.60. Yield and other sugar related parameters were also presented for the two seasons.


Key words: Sugar beet, crop water requirements, cracking clay, gravimetric sampling.

pp. 875-886

Concentration of Vinasse Using Membrane Filtration Processes

Maria Thereza de Moraes Santos Gomes, Kaliana Sitonio Eça and Luiz Antonio Viotto


Abstract: The application of single nanofiltration (NF) and sequential filtration of microfiltration (MF) and NF for the concentration of vinasse were studied. Filtration experiments were performed at 60 °C, 500 rpm and different transmembrane pressures using four commercial membranes: MF, PVDF 0.2 μm; NF, PES 300, 500 and 1000 Da. The process effectiveness was evaluated through the permeate flux and the total solids (TS) concentration in the retentate. Because the retention of TS and permeate fluxes were very similar for MF, PVDF-0.2 membrane at 0.10 MPa was selected because of its lower power consumption. The best conditions tested for NF were the following: PES-1000 at 3.50 MPa with a flux of 183.2 kg/m2 h at a volume reduction factor (VRF) of 2, under which 68% of solids were retained. For the MF + NF, a PES-1000 at 3.50 MPa was selected because a higher permeate flux was achieved at a VRF of 4, and PES-500 at 3.50 MPa because a higher retention of TS was achieved compared to the other experiments. A single NF resulted in a retentate concentration that was almost twice as high as the hybrid MF and NF process, allowing reduced costs in its transportation from distilleries to distant areas.


Key words: Microfiltration, nanofiltration, total solids.

pp. 887-898

Canopy Carbon Exchange on a Coarse-Sand-Field, No-tillage Peach Orchard

Zhaopeng Ou Yang, Yuzhong Li, Xurong Mei and Jiaxuan Guo


Abstract: Plant carbon sequestration is an effective way to abate the global warming. However, the field-scale carbon exchange on a peach orchard remains unclear. Here, using an eddy covariance technique, the net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange and energy balance were analyzed on a coarse-sand-field, no-tillage, 12-year-old-peach orchard. The results showed that during full flowering, the ability to sequestrate carbon was significant, it reached on the peak of -0.33 mg (CO2) m-2 s-1. During rapid growth, the Bowen ratio was under 0.3 and daily net carbon sequestration reached on the peak of -25.1 g (CO2) m-2 d-1. During the leaf fall stage, there is a great deal of CO2 emissions, the peak value of carbon sequestration reached +0.60 mg (CO2) m-2 s-1. During monitoring period, the daily average of net carbon sequestration and Bowen ratio was 1.22 ± 1.56 and -2.90 ± 6.63 g (CO2) m-2 d-1, respectively. The net carbon sequestration could reach -1,052 g (CO2) m-2 in a year. These results reveal that there is high carbon sequestration on a coarse-sand-field, no-tillage peach orchard.


Key words: Orchard forest ecosystem, carbon dioxide flux, Bowen ratio, eddy covariance.

pp. 899-908

Weed Recognition Using Image-Processing Technique Based on Leaf Parameters

Kamal N. Agrawal, Karan Singh, Ganesh C. Bora and Dongqing Lin


Abstract: Weeds normally grow in patches and spatially distributed in field. Patch spraying to control weeds has advantages of chemical saving, reduced cost and environmental pollution. Advent of electro-optical sensing capabilities has paved the way of using machine vision technologies for patch spraying. Machine vision system has to acquire and process digital images to make control decisions. Proper identification and classification of objects present in image holds the key to make control decisions and use of any spraying operation performed. Recognition of objects in digital image may be affected by background, intensity, image resolution, orientation of the object and geometrical characteristics. A set of 16, including 11 shape and 5 texture-based parameters coupled with predictive discriminating analysis has been used to identify the weed leaves. Geometrical features were indexed successfully to eliminate the effect of object orientation. Linear discriminating analysis was found to be more effective in correct classification of weed leaves. The classification accuracy of 69% to 80% was observed. These features can be utilized for development of image based variable rate sprayer.


Key words: Machine vision, weed detection, image-processing, leaf parameters.

pp. 909-918

Abstract: Amylolytic enzymes are currently investigated to improve industrial processes of starch degradation. Saccharomyces diastaticus 2047 isolated from cassava waste showed amylase and glucoamylase production, using starch medium, and the highest rate was obtained in the initial growth phase, after incubation for 24 h at pH 5.5. Maximum amylase and glucoamylase activities (483.62 U mg-1 protein and 290.85 U mg-1 protein) were obtained at pH 5.5. The isolated enzymes exhibited thermostable properties as indicated by retention of 100% of residual activity at 55 °C for 45 min with total inhibition at 100 °C. Extracellular enzyme from S. diastaticus 2047 was partially purified by fractionated precipitation with ammonium sulphate. After 40% saturation produced 2,197.00 and 1,192.83 U/mg protein, and yield was 40% with purification 4.54 and 4.1 fold, respectively. This study presents feasibility on ethanol production from cassava pulps pretreated with diluted sulfuric acid by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with S. diastaticus 2047. The results indicated that the culture was able to produce ethanol with high yield without amylolytic enzyme adding by using cassava pulps pretreated with distilled water at 135 °C under pressure of 15 lb/inch2 to produce ethanol yield as high as the cassava pulps pretreated with diluted sulfuric acid under the same condition. This suggests that S. diastaticus with enzyme produced has potential for industrial applications.


Key words: Ethanol, cassava pulp, fermentation, amylase.

pp. 919-933

Nutrient Recycling Using Human Urine: Potential for Low Input Farming

Onesimus Semalulu, Margaret Azuba, Patrick Makhosi, Fred Semyalo and Shuaib Lwasa


Abstract: Recycling human urine for farming was assessed in a peri-urban Kyanja parish, Kampala district, and in a rural Migyera parish, Nakasongola district, to demonstrate its potential and develop local use guidelines. Test crops were maize, Nakati (Solanum aethiopicum), kale, spinach, cabbage, tomatoes, egg plants. Urine-water mixtures (0, 10%, 20%, 30% urine) were applied weekly or bi-weekly. At Kyanja, 30% urine weekly gave the highest maize yields. Within 2 months, 10% urine weekly increased Nakati yield from 5,444 to 24,667 kg ha-1. 20% Urine weekly increased kale yield (7,556 to 16,111 kg ha-1) and spinach (4,222 to 19,022 kg ha-1). At Migyera, 10% urine weekly increased cabbage yield (4,975 to 16,113 kg ha-1) but 30% urine weekly decreased cabbage head-weight by 36%. Weekly applied urine produced heavier cabbage heads than bi-weekly (548 g vs. 427 g, P < 0.05). Leaf N was higher for weekly than bi-weekly applied urine (3.3% vs. 3.0%), implying more protein in the former than the latter. From this study, the following guidelines are proposed: Kyanja area, maize: apply 30% urine weekly for 8-weeks; Nakati: apply 10% urine weekly for 8-weeks; Kale and spinach: apply 20% urine weekly; For Migyera area, cabbage and spinach: apply 10% urine weekly. Apply urine 15 cm around each plant starting 2-weeks after transplanting. So kale and spinach prolong urine application for continued harvesting.


Key words: Human urine, ecological sanitation, closing the loop, organic fertilizers, urban agriculture.

pp. 934-939

Abstract: The aim of this experimental work is to select wheat progenies tolerant high levels of salinity. Studies were conducted to determine the realized response in salt tolerance of some selected progeny (F3) through one cycle of screening and selection and the extent of variability for salt tolerance among selected progeny (F3) of wheat. All the selected progeny (F3) derived from (F2) populations after exposure are to high salinity level, were tested for salt tolerance during all growth stages in sand cultures salinized with 0, 100, 175 mM NaCl as compared with the unselected progeny (F2). Results showed that the selected progeny (F3) were in all cases except one, superior in yield at maturity and in most cases significantly so, both at 100 and 175 mM NaCl, to the yield of the unselected progeny (F2) controls. In this study, some selected progeny exhibited more than twice the seed yield compared with that obtained from unselected progeny at 175 mM NaCl, and their seed yield was also significantly higher than that at 0 mM NaCl. Results also indicated that the highest value percentage of realized response in salt tolerance was in (F3AS1) and (F3AS2) at 175 mM NaCl. It is important to bear in mind that the significant improvement in selected progeny was achieved just in a single cycle of selection. There is then a strong possibility that further increases in tolerance may be obtained through further cycles of selection till reaching F6 or F7 where would show genetics stability. 


Key words: Wheat genotype, salt tolerance, screening, selection, salinity.

pp. 940-949

Detection of Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid, and Its Impact on Growth, Production of Tomatoes in Greenhouse

Haniyeh Mohamed Algamodi, Jaber Abdullah Khalil, Taher Ahmed Abouhliqh and Khaled Djdj


Abstract: The viability of most tomato varieties cultivated in Libya have been tested to infect with potato spindle tuber viroid/potatoes (PSTVd) and its impact on growth and production of some of these varieties, which were mechanically inoculated with Libyan isolate of viroid PSTVd as follows: Vlkato, Sankarh, Lebda, Jasmine, Kenza and Hana. The percent of incidence were 95.95%, 90%, 90.80%, 80% and 20%, respectively. The following varieties have been contagious mechanically with viroid of PSTVd: Vlkato, zahra, Toria, Lebda, Hoda, Farwa, Alkaraz, Naziha, Rim Star and Kartika. The percent of incidence were 95.95%, 85%, 85.80%, 80%, 70.40%, 0.0%, 0.0%, respectively. The varied symptoms of wrinkle, twist, warp, swell the veins of the leaves, dark brown spots formation and a large yellow spots turned into white patches. Also the effect of the Egyptian isolate viroid PSTVd in the growth and production of varieties Jasmine, Lebda, Soberhalim, and treasure No.185 had been studied, as the average rates of decline in the production of the fruits tomatoes/tomato 43.4% and 17% length of plants, and in the fresh weight and dry root of the sum of 35% and 37% respictively.


Key words: Potato spindle tuber viroid, the infection of tomato plants, nucleic acid, PCR.

pp. 950-955

Induction and Characterization of Embryogenic Callus in Cotyledons Leaves of Tabebuia roseo-alba

Jorge Marcelo Padovani Porto, Patrícia Duarte de Oliveira Paiva, Renato Paiva and Eduardo Alves


Abstract: Seeds from Tabebuia roseo-alba lose viability very fast. Moreover, the seed germination rate is very low, reaching approximately 40%. This study aimed at the in vitro induction of embryogenic callus. This technology allows subsequent plant regeneration as an alternative for the production of T. roseo-alba seedlings. Seeds were germinated in vitro and after 20 days, cotyledonary leaves, hypocotyls and root segments excised from these seedlings were used as explants. They were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with sucrose (30 g/L), agar (5.0 g/L) and different auxins. The effect of 2,4-D, picloram and NAA at concentrations 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/L was evaluated. For the analysis of callus with embryogenic characteristics, ultra-structural study by scanning electron microscopy and cytochemical test with carmine were performed. The results showed that the culture medium supplemented with 4 mg/L NAA presented induction of callus with embryogenic characteristics in all explants used, with cotyledonary leaves showing the highest percentage (70% of explants with embryogenic characteristics). The use of 2, 4-D and picloram was efficient for callus formation in different explants, but no embryogenic characteristics were observed. From the ultra-structural analysis of callus with embryogenic characteristics, it was found that cells from different explant sources had isodiametric format. This format is similar to somatic embryos in globular stage. The cytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of pro-embryogenic cells in callus mass. Callus induced from cotyledonary leaves presented 46% positive reaction to carmine acetic.


Key words: Carmine acetic, isodiametric cell, NAA, tissue culture, ultra-structural analysis.

pp. 956-964

The Nutritive Value of Leaves and Fruits of Three Grewia Species under Semi-Arid Environment

Niemat Abdalla Saleem, Mohamed El Nour and Ayoub Adam Mohamed Khalil


Abstract: This study was carried out to assess the leaves and fruits of Grewia mollis, Grewia tenax and Grewia villosa for their potentials to produce high nutritive value fodder under semi-arid conditions. The experiment was conducted at the farm of the College of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Juba-Khartoum-Sudan. Randomized Complete Block design with three replications was used. Proximate analysis was carried to estimate nutritive value, and mineral contents of leaves, seeds and fruit pulp of the three species. Results indicated significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in nutritive value of the leaves among the three species; dry matter, ash, and acid detergent factor (ADF) kg/ha, while no significant difference was observed among the species in crude protein (CP) and nutrient detergent factor (NDF) kg/ha. Mineral contents of the leaves of the three species showed variations among the species and seasons. Seeds and fruit pulp were found to have considerable levels of nutrients and mineral contents. The nutritive value of the three species was higher in the rainy season compared to the dry season. The results of this study indicate that the three species can be introduced as a source of fodder in animal production farms and silvopastural systems.


Key words: Nutritive value, fodder, Grewia mollis, G. tenax, G. villosa.

pp. 965-970

Influence of Dietary Administration of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on the Innate Immunity and Resistance against Bacterial Infections in Pikeperch (Sander lucioperca)

Andrzej Krzysztof Siwicki, Agnieszka Lepa, Zdzisław Zakęś, Agata Kowalska, Barbara Kazuń, Krzysztof Kazuń and Edward Głąbski


Abstract: The present study examined the influence of leucine metabolite b-hydroxy-b-methylbutyrate (HMB) on the nonspecific cellular and humoral defence mechanisms and protection against Yersinia ruckeri and Aeromonas salmonicida in juvenile pikeperch (Sander lucioperca). The fish was fed with a commercial trout pellets, containing either 0 (control group) or 50 mg HMB kg-1 body weight day-1 (HMB fed group). After four weeks feeding, 20 pikeperch from each group were anaesthetised and blood and pronephros samples were taken. The levels of the following immunological parameters were measured: respiratory burst activity of phagocytes, potential killing activity of phagocytes, lymphocytes proliferation stimulated by concanavaline A or lipopolisaccharide, lysozyme activity in serum, ceruloplasmin activity in serum, total protein in serum and total immunoglobulin (Ig) level in serum. A disease challenge test using Yersinia ruckeri or Aeromonas salmonicida was conducted after 4 weeks of feeding. The levels of all immunological parameters excluding ceruloplasmin activity and total protein in serum were statistically significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the HMB treated group compared to the control group. Feeding with HMB has led to a significant decrease in the mortality after the challenge trial with Y. ruckeri (30% lower mortality than in the control group) and with the A. salmonicida (40% lower mortality than in the control group). The current study strongly suggests that feeding pikeperch with HMB in dose 50 mg kg-1 body weight day-1 may improve the innate immunity and decrease the mortality rates after experimental infection with pathogenic bacteria Y. ruckeri and A. salmonicida.


Key words: HMB, pikeperch, immunostimulant, fish, Yersinia ruckeri, Aeromonas salmonicida.




$1200(USD)                $0(USD)



 Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A and Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology B, the monthly professional academic journals, particularly emphasizes new research results in realm of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and veterinary, fisheries, agricultural engineering, food science, agricultural economy and so on. Articles interpreting practical application of up-to-date technology are also welcome.


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