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Volume 6, Number 3, March 2012
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J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 6 (2012) 199-208



Determination of the Antioxidant Capacity of Different Types of Bread and Flour using a Superoxide Dismutase Biosensor

Riccarda Antiochia1*, Karim Movassaghi2, Paola Lipone3 and Luigi Campanella3

1. Department of Chemistry and Drug Technologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00185, Italy

2. Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441, Iran

3. Department of Chemistry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00185, Italy


Received: November 21, 2011 / Accepted: January 05, 2012 / Published: March 25, 2012.


Abstract: The aim was to experimentally evaluate the antioxidant capacity of different types of bread and of the relative flour used for bread production utilizing a superoxide dismutase (SOD) biosensor recently developed by the present authors. Measurements were carried out by comparing the biosensor response to the concentration of superoxide radical produced in solution using a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system in the presence and in the absence of the antioxidant sample considered, respectively. Precision of antioxidant capacity measures for crust and crumb of the different breads was found to be good (RSD% ≤ 8%) and acceptable for the watery suspension and filtrate of the different flours studied (RSD% ≤ 12%). The obtained results indicated that general flours show higher antioxidant capacity values than the corresponding breads and that crust show always an antioxidant capacity definitely larger than the crumb. Lastly, the antioxidant capacity values were compared with those of almond, red pepper and strawberry, three foods containing powerful natural antioxidants.


Keywords: Bread, flour, antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase biosensor.




J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 6 (2012) 209-214



Development of Uric Acid Sensor Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymethacrylic Acid-Modified Hanging Mercury Drop Electrode

Miratul Khasanah1, 2*, Mudasir2, Agus Kuncaka2 and Eko Sugiharto2

1. Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Airlangga University, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia

2. Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia


Received: December 12, 2011 / Accepted: January 31, 2012 / Published: March 25, 2012.


Abstract: Development of uric acid sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was studied. The sensor was developed by coating the imprinted polymethacrylic acid on the surface of a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) at -1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) during 60 s. Uric acid was accumulated on the modified electrode at -1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) during 60 s in acetate buffer pH = 5 and stripped at scan rate of 59 mV/s. Oxidation of uric acid on the surface of modified electrode is irreversible through the diffusion controlled process and polymethacrylic acid is a non-electrical conducting polymer. The current signal obtained from the analysis of uric acid by using HMDE is higher than that of the HMD-polymethacrylic acid (polyMAA), HMD-MIP and HMD-non imprinted polymer (NIP) electrode. The HMD-MIP has demonstrated its performance as a sensitive voltammetric sensor for uric acid. The modified electrode has been tested for the determination of uric acid in the serum sample with recovery percentage of 95.7% (n = 2). The limit of detection obtained was 6.0 × 10-10 M.


Key words: Uric acid, sensor, imprinted polymer, methacrylic acid.




Freezing Desalination

Jaouahdou Aroussia, Hervé Muhr and Mohamed Jomaa Safi


J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 6 (2012) 215-218



Freezing Desalination

Jaouahdou Aroussia1*, Hervé Muhr2 and Mohamed Jomaa Safi1

1. Research Unit Mechanic-Energetic (URME), National Engineering School of Tunis, Tunis 1002, Tunisia

2. Reactions and Chemical Engineering Laboratory (LRGP), ENSIC-Nancy 54000, France


Received: October 31, 2011 / Accepted: November 18, 2011 / Published: March 25, 2012.


Abstract: The solidification of a binary mixture causes allowed thermosolutal convection. Under certain conditions, the separation of its components gives rise to a preferential movement of migration of solutes. The quantity and the concentration of the obtained products depend on the mechanisms of separation which depend on different parameters and the applied boundary conditions. In this way, the freezing of H2O-NaCl mixture makes it possible to obtain a liquid phase which is charged in solute and called brine and a solid phase which is composed of ice being able to become fresh water, and so it can works as a desalination process. In this paper, a series of experiments of seawater freezing on cold surface is carried out at the laboratory under different operating conditions. During these experiments, the role of each parameter (temperature of crystallization, duration of crystallization...) which is able to impact the final composition is focused on. After a preliminary series of experiment, the yield is improved to reach rates of salt and make it possible to regard the water produced as drinkable according to the standards of WHO (World Health Organization).


Key words: Desalination, freezing, binary mixture, thermosolutal convection.




J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 6 (2012) 219-226



Adsorption of Phenol Aqueous Solutions and Two Nitroderivated on Activated Carbon

Luisa F. Navarrete1, 2*, Liliana Giraldo2and Juan C. Moreno3

1. Faculty of Engineering, Libre University, Bogota 11001000, Colombia

2. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, National University of Colombia, Bogota 11001000, Colombia

3. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Los Andes University, Bogota 11001000, Colombia


Received: August 27, 2011 / Accepted: October 09, 2011 / Published: March 25, 2012.


Abstract: The adsorption of phenol, p-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol in aqueous phase on activated carbon is performed by evaluating factors such as the pH of the solution, the values in adsorbate molecule is found upper and lower of its respective pKa. Likewise, the heterogeneity of the adsorbent solid is evaluated using commercial activated carbon, modified by means of oxidation with HNO3 and reduction with H2 fluxing at high temperature, treatments that represent variations in textural properties of solid changed equally the superficial chemistry of the same. The major concentration of retained phenol compound in some samples of carbon is produced in pH values which the solute is basically molecular.


Key words: Adsorption, activated carbon, phenols.




J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 6 (2012) 227-232



A Method and a Surface Treatment Agent for Preventing Biofouling on Surfaces under Water 

Birgit Elisabeth Swenson*


Tegelformsgatan 4, Mölndal 43136, Sweden


Received: November 22, 2011 / Accepted: January 05, 2012 / Published: March 25, 2012.


Abstract: This paper presents an environmentally friendly method of inhibiting biofouling especially acorn barnacles on surfaces under water by using nicotine and selenium in the form of Se(0), or such a substance which can be converted into them. Both of the substances are necessary to oxygen dependent organisms and will be used after conversion, but are toxic in high doses. By adding the substances to paint or other surface treatment agent which marine surfaces are treated with, organisms which are trying to establish themselves on the surfaces will be exposed to so high doses, the reactions which the settling is based on are disturbed. When the substances leak out into the seas, they will act as environment protectors, as they promote the development of organisms. Nicotine is transformed to nicotine amid which is the reactive part in NADH and one of the most important substances for the transference of hydrogen. Selenite is reduced to Se(0), also involved in the transport chain of hydrogen to reducible oxygen. However, large quantities Se(0) may disturb the reactions of sulphur by binding to it and impairing the formation of S-S-bridges.


Key words: Marine biofouling, environment protection, crustaceans, catemines, nicotine, selenite.




Obtaining Sulfur Nanoparticles from Sodium Polysulfide Aqueous Solution

Massalimov Ismail Alexandrovich, Mustafin Akhat Gazizyanovich, Shangareeva Alina Rifhatovna, Khusainov Azat Nailevich and Zaynitdinova Rezeda Maratovna


J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 6 (2012) 233-241



Obtaining Sulfur Nanoparticles from Sodium Polysulfide Aqueous Solution

Massalimov Ismail Alexandrovich1, 2*, Mustafin Akhat Gazizyanovich1, Shangareeva Alina Rifhatovna1, Khusainov Azat Nailevich2 and Zaynitdinova Rezeda Maratovna1

1. Bashkir State University, Ufa 450074, Russia

2. Laboratory of Technology of Mechanochemical Processes, Research Technological Institute of Herbicides and Plant Growth Regulators of the Academy of Sciences, Bashkortostan Republic Ufa 450029, Russia


Received: September 02, 2011 / Accepted: November 01, 2011 / Published: March 25, 2012.


Abstract: This paper thoroughly studies the process of obtaining sulfur nanoparticles in aqueous medium from sodium polysulfide. Nanosize sulfur particles with orthorhombic structure were obtained at room temperature by mixing sodium polysulfide aqueous solution with various inorganic and organic acids. Sulfur nanoparticles were characterized by laser particle-size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, electron probe microscopy. Size of sulfur nanoparticles in aqueous dispersion is affected strongly by acid concentration, as well as nature of alcohols, used as wetting agents when measuring sulfur particles size in aqueous medium. Availability of obtaining sulfur nanoparticles of 22-25 nm average size in aqueous medium was revealed. High biological activity of sulfur nanoparticles and ethylalcohol composition on wheat grain couching was established.


Key words: Sulfur, nanoparticles, sodium polysulfide, aqueous solution, alcohols, biological activity.




J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 6 (2012) 242-249



The Effect of Ionizing Radiation and Magnetic Field on Deformation Properties of High Density Polyethylene/Acrylonitrile-Butadiene Composites

Ingars Reinholds1, Valdis Kalkis1* and Roberts D. Maksimovs2

1. Faculty of Chemistry, University of Latvia, Riga LV-1013, Latvia

2. Institute of Polymer Materials, Riga Technical University, Riga, LV-1048, Latvia


Received: September 22, 2011 / Accepted: November 07, 2011 / Published: March 25, 2012.


Abstract: The effect of magnetic field and ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of polymer blends consisting of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) has been investigated. The purpose of the work was to create HDPE/NBR blend composites of significantly different compositions (with an excess of HDPE, intermediate ones, and with an excess of NBR) and to investigate the role of composition on mechanical deformation properties under the influence of magnetic field. The investigation has importance from the engineering viewpoint, since thermoplastic composite materials have been used as structural elements in thermonuclear and engineering fields, like wires, insulation materials and others, which are frequently subjected to mechanical loadings under the effect of magnetic field greater than 1 T. One part of the blends has been irradiated with 5 MeV accelerated electrons up to absorbed dose D equal to 150 kGy. Unirradiated and the radiation modified blends have been exposed to a constant magnetic field with induction B equal to 1.0 T, 1.5 T and 1.7 T. It is found that the action of magnetic field decreases the elastic modulus of unirradiated materials. Decrement of elastic modulus is reduced with increase of the content of NBR in composites. It is also found that preliminary irradiation noticeably decreases the effect of magnetic field. Data of the influence of the magnetic field, radiation cross-linking, and the ratio of the components on the creep are also obtained.


Key words: Magnetic field, radiation modification, creep compliance, polyethylene, acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber.




J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 6 (2012) 250-258





Advances of the Vertical Directional Solidification Technique for the Growth of High Quality InSb Bulk Crystals

Dattatray Bhairu Gadkari*

Department of Physics, Mithibai College, Mumbai 400056, India


Received: November 19, 2011 / Accepted: January 05, 2012 / Published: March 25, 2012.


Abstract: Since 1994, the vertical directional solidification (VDS) technique is employed for the growths of bulk crystals—without the seed, without contact to the ampoule wall, without coating and without external pressure, which leads to the detached growth. Growth velocities ranged from 3 mm/h to 10 mm/h, and rotation rates 10-20 rpm have been used. Ingots, 10-20 mm diameter and 60-65 mm length, have been grown with the conical ampoule geometry and these ingots have shown symmetric detachment. Crystals grown under such conditions showed the relatively low dislocation density and the highest carrier mobility, µn = 5.9 × 104 cm2·V-1·s-1 than the crystal grown ever. For the detached crystals, the dislocation density is 104 cm-2 in conical region, and reached less than 103 cm-2 in the direction of the growth, when the ingots are not in contact with the ampoule wall. Experiments for indium-antimonide (InSb) growth have shown that the 80% growth environments have detachment, 15% entrapped in conical region and 5% attached.


Key words: Antimonides, growth from melt, solidification, detachment, crystal structure, semiconductor indium compound.




J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 6 (2012) 259-262



Synthesis and Structure of Chromium Complexes with New Tetradentate Schiff Base N2O2-Type Ligand

Roya Ranjineh Khojasteh and Marzieh Hanjani Bagheri*

Department of Chemistry, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 16688-43819, Iran


Received: July 29, 2011 / Accepted: September 03, 2011 / Published: March 25, 2012.


Abstract: In this research two chromium(III) and (VI) complexes of tetradentate Schiff bases have been prepared by condensing of salicylaldehyde with 4-methyl 1,2-phenylenediamine. Schiff base complexes of chromium(III) have been employed to design and synthesize polynuclear complexes. So they have played an important role in molecular magnetism. Synthesized complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, molar conductivity and NMR. The free ligands were also characterized by 1H, 13C NMR spectra. The 13C NMR and IR spectra of free ligand and the complexes are compared and discussed.


Key words: Tetradentate Schiff base, chromium(VI), salicylaldehyde, 4-methyl 1,2-phenylene diamine.




Synthesis of L-Lactide from Butyl Lactate: Selection of Catalyst

Khlopov Dmitry, Shvets Valeriy, Kozlovskiy Roman, Suchkov Yury and Otyuskaya_Darya


J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 6 (2012) 263-267



Synthesis of L-Lactide from Butyl Lactate: Selection of Catalyst

Khlopov Dmitry*, Shvets Valeriy, Kozlovskiy Roman, Suchkov Yury and Otyuskaya_Darya

D. I. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Moscow 125047, Russia


Received: November 25, 2011 / Accepted: January 05, 2012 / Published: March 25, 2012.


Abstract: The process of production of lactide from butyl lactate was investigated. The process consists of two stages: oligomerisation of butyl lactatean and depolymerisation of oligomers. The type catalysts of the series of Lewis acid were tested. It was found that SnCl4 is the most efficient catalyst for both stages.


Key words: Lactide, oligomerisation, depolymerisation, butyl lactate, catalyst.




J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 6 (2012) 268-271



A Method for Calculating Blast Pressure of Failed Lithium-Ion Cells with C-H-O Solvents

Kai-Hsiang Yen1*, Carl Wang1 and Mahmood Tabaddor2

1. Corporate Research/Underwriters Laboratories Taiwan Co., Ltd., Taipei 112, Taiwan

2. Corporate Research/UL LLC, Northbrook IL 60062-2096, USA


Received: December 15, 2011 / Accepted: February 07, 2012 / Published: March 25, 2012.


Abstract: Blast pressure of C-H-O solvents on failed lithium-ion cells at the voltage range between 3.8 V and 4.18 V may be calculated by means of the simple semi-empirical equation, γ = (Ia + Jb)/(Ka + Lb + Mc), ρ is the initial density of solvent, Q is the chemical energy of explosion, ν is the voltage. The values of a, b, c depend on C-H-O composition. Value of I, J, K, L, M may be estimated from the H2O-CO2 arbitrary decomposition assumption. Blast pressure derived in this manner can provide preliminary protective estimation and it is compared with experiment results by adiabatic calorimeter.


Key words: Solvent, blast pressure, lithium-ion cells, safety.




Equilibrium Swelling and Kinetic Studies of Highly Swollen Chitosan Film

Janet Titilayo Bamgbose, Akeem Adesina Bamigbade, Sheriff Adewuyi, Enock Olugbemga Dare, Aliyu Adebayo Lasisi and Abdulahi Ndzi Njah


J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 6 (2012) 272-283



Equilibrium Swelling and Kinetic Studies of Highly Swollen Chitosan Film

Janet Titilayo Bamgbose1*, Akeem Adesina Bamigbade1, Sheriff Adewuyi1, Enock Olugbemga Dare1, Aliyu Adebayo Lasisi1 and Abdulahi Ndzi Njah2

1. Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, PMB 2240, Ogun State 110001, Nigeria

2. Department of Physics, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, PMB 2240, Ogun State 110001, Nigeria


Received: November 11, 2011 / Accepted: January 05, 2012 / Published: March 25, 2012.


Abstract: The synthesis, characterization and swelling equilibrium of chitosan film in water-solvent mixtures were investigated. Chitosan film was prepared by reacting chitosan with 2% v/v glacial acetic acid. The film was characterized by Fourier transform Infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine its structure and morphology. The swelling behavior of this chitosan film was further investigated in water-solvent (methanol, ethanol, butanol and acetone) mixtures gravimetrically at different temperatures and pH. The equilibrium and dynamic swelling properties were studied to investigate the pH-sensitive behavior of the gels. The hydrogel demonstrated critical swelling behavior as the pH approached 6.8. The dynamic swelling was performed and the results were analyzed using a second-order model to calculate the time constant of the swelling. The values of percentage equilibrium swelling of chitosan film in water were higher than the values in organic solvents. The values range from 105.23% ± 0.28% to 131.83% ± 0.41% in water but in organic solvents it ranges from 48.68% ± 0.38% to 96.11% ± 0.02%. The results of the swelling measurement in organic solvent were compared with the prediction of the Flory-Rehner theory of swelling equilibrium. It was shown that the theory correctly predicted the swelling behavior of the hydrogel up to 60% solvent concentration. Diffusion behavior was also investigated. The calculated diffusion exponent is greater than 0.5 indicating that the diffusion of solvent into the film was non-Fickian and could be described as anomalous. Generally, the sorption process was found to be endothermic, feasible and spontaneous.


Key words: Chitosan, hydrogel swelling, organic solvents, diffusion, equilibrium.




J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 6 (2012) 284-291



Frequency and Correlation Characteristic of the Hopf Bifurcation Chemical Oscillatory Patterns

Hanna Sciegosz*

Department of Mathematics and Applied Computer Science, Opole University of Technology, Opole 45-036, Poland


Received: January 01, 2012 / Accepted: February 07, 2012 / Published: March 25, 2012.


Abstract: The Belousov-Zhabotinski type of chemical reactions was studied. Dynamics of the unperturbed oscillating chemical system and subject to the external perturbations is considered. The system response to the external periodic perturbation near the Hopf bifurcation point has been monitored. As a response to the external periodic perturbation of system, one obtains the synchronization oscillations, two-, three- and multiperiodic ones as well as obtain two types of chaos. The kinetic of such reactions is analyzed by time series. The Fourier transforms were used to analyze the frequency characteristics of the synchronized and chaotic states giving the different harmonic spectra. As further statistical characteristics the winding numbers and variation values of trajectories are calculated using a rotational model of processes in relation to the coherence parameter joint with perturbation period. For chaotic states the autocorrelation functions and correlation dimensions, which form an approximation of a fractal dimension D, have been calculated. Additionally, Lyapunov exponents were computed. Their positive values confirmed chaotic behavior.


Key words: Oscillations, Fourier spectrum, circle map, correlation dimension, Lyapunov spectrum.




Short-Wave Emission and Microdischarges during Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis

Kirdyashkin Alexandr Ivanovich, Salamatov Vitaly Georgievich, Maksimov Yury Mikhailovich, Sosnin Eduard Anatolievich, Tarasenko Victor Fedotovich and Gabbasov Ramil Mahmutovich


J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 6 (2012) 292-298



Short-Wave Emission and Microdischarges during Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis

Kirdyashkin Alexandr Ivanovich1, Salamatov Vitaly Georgievich1, Maksimov Yury Mikhailovich1, Sosnin Eduard Anatolievich2*, Tarasenko Victor Fedotovich2 and Gabbasov Ramil Mahmutovich1

1. Department for Structural Macrokinetics, Tomsk Scientific Center of SB RAS, Tomsk 634021, Russia

2. Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk 634021, Russia


Received: November 29, 2011 / Accepted: January 12, 2012 / Published: March 25, 2012.


Abstract: Emission in the X-ray and ultraviolet (200-300 nanometers) region of spectrum is found out during combustion of heterogeneous systems with the formation of condensed products, and pulses from microwave emission with short duration are recorded as well. Combustion of a Ti-B powder system showed that self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) is accompanied by two types of X-ray radiation. Radiation of the first type has the maximum quantum energy ~ 5 keV. It is supposed that this type is caused by micro-breakdowns due to the charge separation in combustion products. Runaway electrons and soft X-ray radiation are generated due to the concentration of electric field on microparticles during breakdown. Radiation of the second type has the quantum energy up to ~ 15 keV. It is supposed that it is caused by exoemission of photons. UV radiation in the region of 200-300 nm is recorded during SHS in different gases (He, Ar, N2). This radiation is shown to have the highest intensity in helium at the pressure ~ 25 × 103 Pa.


Key words: Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, spectrophotometry, X-ray.






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Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (ISSN: 1934-7375), a monthly professional academic journal, particularly emphasizes new research results in realm of chemistry and chemical engineering, which is an international, scholarly, and peer-reviewed journal (print and online) published monthly by David Publishing Company, USA. It provides an international medium for the publication of theoretical and experimental studies and reviews related to Analytical Chemistry, Biochemistry, Green Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Material Chemistry and Nanotechnology, Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry, Petroleum Chemistry and Catalysis, and Chemistry Engineering, and so on. Accepted papers will appear online followed by printed in hard copy.


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